Work packages breakdown

Helis - diagram1The project consists of 10 work packages. WP's independence and partner’s independence is presented in the following Pert diagram.

Work package leader: NIC

The work package represents continuous efforts to carry out the financial and administrative coordination by controlling information flow and communication.

Work package leader: NIC

WP 2 involves the technical coordination activities and system integration activities and contains the coordination of the system selection. More precisely, it includes the specification of the Li-S cell(s) components for the two types of targeted cell configurations, their integration into different prototypes and selection of appropriate cycling conditions for testing of cells and battery packages. Procedures describing the conditions for the study of self-discharge and calendar life of Li-S cells, including the study of ageing will be performed within this WP.

Helis - diagram2

Work package leader: CNRS-LRCS

WP 3 is focused on the production of larger quantities of carbon host matrices to be used for impregnation with sulphur. Materials selection will be performed within WP 2 and the required quantity of carbon/sulphur composite for the production of one Li-S cell will be made. Our goal is to achieve more than 50 wt.% of sulphur within the cathode composite (the remaining composition will be the carbon host matrix, binder and electron conductive additive).

Based on results from engineering and modelling, double-coated electrodes with the required properties (porosity, loading, composition) will be produced for the prototype cells.

Work package leader: Chalmers

The general objective focuses on the electrolyte which can effectively work in a ratio lower than 1 mL per mg of sulphur; thus, a high solubility of polysulphides is important. Additionally, the electrolyte system should enable precipitation of small Li2S crystals which can more easily be oxidised back to elemental sulphur. Another important objective relates to the basic electrochemical understanding of interactions between electrolyte and sulphur species which can significantly contribute to the overall understanding of the ageing and failure mechanisms. This work will be combined with previously established analytical tools developed within the EUROLIS project.

Work package leader: WWU

The main objective of this WP focuses on the protection of metallic lithium against continuous degradation due to the formation of an unstable SEI and on the prevention of polysulphide reaction with the metallic lithium. Thus, investigations will be carried out on metallic lithium modifications in order to overcome dendrites formation during cycling as well as to achieve stable cycling with a high Coulombic efficiency. For that purpose, two different approaches will be considered: existing Li+ conducting polymers will serve as a starting point for further development and various inorganic thin layers deposited on lithium by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will be studied for potential application.
Another important objective in this WP is the design of the negative electrode with regards to how an adjusted thickness influences the cycle lifetime. The continued development and scale-up of the ion-selective separator will be developed in the EUROLIS project. Proper loading of the hydrophobic component, tensile strength, porosity permeability and thickness will be adjusted to accommodate the required electrolyte quantities.

 

Work package leader: CNRS-LRCS

The use of modelling tools in the first phase of the project will determine (i) requested mesostructural properties of host matrices (pore volume, pore size distribution, tortuosity, porosity gradients along the electrode thickness, etc.), (ii) optimal composite cathode composition (sulphur loading, type and amount of carbon additive), and (iii) the optimal electrolyte composition. In addition to its use as a cathode and cell design tool, the final model will be used to simulate the behaviour of the cell under various conditions of use, especially the simulation of rest and cycling according to real conditions for EV or HEV. These types of conditions of use might strongly modify the morphology of polysulphide precipitates though a dissolution/growth process; consequently, the cell power might be affected by this phenomenon. The model will be a powerful tool to forecast possible issues which might ensue during real use of the Li-S cells.

Work package leader: SAFT

The WP 7 objectives are related to prototype cells assembly and their testing. One part of cells from each set will be used for an ageing study and safety tests. Battery packs of six cylindrical cells will be built and an adequate BMS will be developed. Differences between the electrochemical characteristics of pouch type cells and cylindrical cells will be assessed since there is no publically available study regarding which configuration is preferred for Li-S batteries.

Cells used for electrochemical characterisation will be stopped after three different cycle lengths and analysed post-mortem or sent for safety testing. Approximately 42 cylindrical cells will be characterised for each set. Other cells will be used for battery packs and system integration.

Work package leader: INERIS

The objectives of this WP are focused on the study of gas evolution in the normal operation regime and abused operation regime, safety tests (nail penetration, overheating, overcharge, short-circuit) and cell safety under conditions favourable for dendrite formation. Within this WP the post-mortem analysis of failure mechanism will be made.

Work package leader: ACCUREC

Objectives in this WP are dedicated to the recycling processes of Li-S batteries in order to meet European legislative requirements and the economic expectations of industry and consumers. The main focus will be on the EU-directive 66/2006, which defines a minimum Recycling Efficiency of 50 wt.% of the battery.

The sustainable use of material resources requires the recycling of most of the metals contained in the batteries, with a high recovery efficiency, at low energy consumption, and with a minimised environmental impact. This is even more important for Li-S cells since there are no current recycling processes for the newly developed chemistry. The aim of this WP is to design and test a novel technology for the vacuum fractionated distillation of battery metals. Due to the technology used, this process is deemed to generate metal fractions of high purity at a market-orientated processing cost. Further, the work will assess the economic modelling of an up-scaled processing plant and a life cycle assessment (LCA) for the full life cycle of the Li-S batteries.

 

Work package leader: TAU

All dissemination, communication and knowledge management activities will take place within this WP. Dissemination and an exchange of knowledge will be initiated by academic and industrial groups in order to ensure access to the recent developments in new Li-S battery materials and technologies.

 

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